Railway fasteners are parts on the track used to connect rails and sleepers (or other types of under-rail foundations), also known as intermediate connecting parts. The role of railway fasteners is to fix the rails on the sleepers, maintain the gauge and prevent the longitudinal and lateral movement of the rails relative to the sleepers.
1. Wooden sleeper fasteners
The connecting part on the sleeper track used to connect the rail and the sleeper. According to the relationship between the connecting rail, the backing plate and the wooden sleeper, it is divided into: deciliter type and hybrid type.
The split fastener is to separate the bolts or spikes that fix the rail and the iron backing plate. The railway fastener manufacturer tells you that the iron pad is usually fixed on the sleeper with road studs, the iron pad has a rail bearing groove, the bolts for fixing the rail are installed on the iron pad, and then the rail is fixed with elastic strips or gussets.
Hybrid fasteners are composed of iron pads and spikes. Use spikes (square) to directly connect the rails to the iron pads and sleepers. The buckle pressure is small, in order to prevent the rail from creeping longitudinally, more anti-climbing equipment is required.
2. Concrete sleeper fasteners
A connecting part on a concrete sleeper track used to connect a steel rail to a concrete sleeper. Railway fastener manufacturers tell you that due to the characteristics of heavy weight and high rigidity, concrete pillows have higher requirements on the performance of fasteners, and have stricter requirements on their buckle pressure, elasticity and adjustability. Concrete sleeper fasteners can be divided into three types according to their structure: elastic fasteners, gusset type fasteners, and shrapnel type fasteners (see concrete sleeper fasteners); according to the elasticity of the fasteners themselves, they can be divided into rigid fasteners and elastic fasteners ; According to whether the concrete sleeper has a shoulder or not, it is divided into two types: with shoulder fastener and without shoulder fastener. The railway fastener manufacturers tell you that Chinese concrete pillow fasteners mainly use two types: gusset type and shrapnel type in the initial stage. Due to the low strength of the arched shrapnel, it is easy to cause residual deformation or even breakage, so it is no longer used on Chinese railways. However, the gusset type fasteners use the gusset plate as the clasp, which has insufficient elasticity and low buckling pressure, and is easy to loosen during use. The elastic strip type fastener adopts the elastic strip as the clamping part, which utilizes the bending deformation and torsional deformation of the material without the problem of weakening the section. The railway fastener manufacturers tell you that the main type of fasteners currently used is the type I fasteners. With the development of heavy-duty high-speed railways, type II and type III fasteners have been successfully developed in recent years. Among them, type III fasteners are bolt-free and shoulder-free fasteners.
3. Buckle type fasteners
The railway fastener manufacturer tells you that the gusset type fastener is composed of a gusset plate, a threaded spike, a spring washer, an iron seat and a buffer pad. The threaded spike is anchored in the reserved holes of the concrete sleeper platform with cement mortar, and then used The bolts fasten the pinch plate.