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Classification of railway fastener

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Railway fastener is a part used to connect rails and sleepers (or other types of under-rail foundations) on the track, also known as intermediate connecting parts. Its function is to fix the rail on the sleeper, maintain the gauge and prevent the rail from moving vertically and horizontally relative to the sleeper.
Classification of railway fastener:

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1. Wooden sleeper fasteners
The connecting parts on the wooden sleeper track are used to connect the steel rail and the wooden sleeper. According to the relationship between the connecting rails, pads and wooden sleepers, it can be divided into: sub-lift type and hybrid type.
The railway fastener separates the bolts or spikes that fix the rail and the fixed iron backing plate. Generally, rail studs are used to fix the iron backing plate on the sleeper. The iron backing plate has a rail groove, and the bolts for fixing the rail are installed on the iron backing plate, and then the rail is fixed with a spring bar or a gusset.
Railway fastener hybrid fasteners are composed of iron backing plates and spikes. Use hook-head spikes (square) to directly connect the rails with iron pads and sleepers. The buckle force is small, and in order to prevent the rail from crawling longitudinally, more anti-climbing equipment is required.
2. Concrete sleeper fasteners
The connecting parts on the concrete sleeper track are used to connect the steel rail and the concrete sleeper. Due to the characteristics of heavy weight and high rigidity, railway fastener concrete sleepers have higher requirements for fastener performance, and strict requirements for their fastening force, elasticity, and adjustability. Concrete sleeper fasteners can be divided into three types according to their structure: elastic fasteners, gusset fasteners, and shrapnel fasteners (see concrete sleeper fasteners); the elasticity of railway fasteners can be divided into rigid fasteners and elastic fasteners; According to whether the concrete sleeper has shoulder or not, it can be divided into shoulder fastener and non-shoulder fastener. In the initial stage, China's concrete sleeper fasteners mainly used two types: gusset type and shrapnel type. Arch-shaped shrapnel-type fasteners are no longer used on Chinese railways because of low strength of the arch-shaped shrapnel, which is easy to cause residual deformation and even break. However, due to the use of gusset plates as buckling parts, gusset fasteners have insufficient elasticity and low buckling pressure, and are easy to loosen during use. At present, they have been gradually replaced by elastic fasteners on Chinese railways. Railway fastener elastic strip fasteners use elastic strips as fastening parts, using the bending deformation and torsion deformation of the material, and there is no weakening of the section, and the structure is relatively reasonable. Therefore, it has become the main type fastener of China's concrete sleeper track. The main type fasteners currently in use are elastic type Ⅰ fasteners. With the development of heavy-duty high-speed railways, elastic type Ⅱ and Ⅲ type fasteners have been successfully developed in recent years. Among them, type III fasteners are fasteners without bolts and shoulders.
3. Buckle-type fasteners
The gusset fastener is composed of a gusset plate, a threaded spike, a spring washer, an iron seat and a cushion plate. The threaded spike is anchored in the reserved hole of the concrete sleeper bearing rail platform with cement mortar, and then the gusset is buckled by bolts. tight.
The above is the classification of railway fastener, I hope it will be helpful to everyone.