Railway fasteners are parts on the track used to connect rails and sleepers (or other types of under-rail foundations), also known as intermediate connecting parts. Its function is to fix the rail on the sleeper, maintain the gauge and prevent the rail from moving longitudinally and laterally relative to the sleeper. The following will take you to understand the system classification of railway fasteners.
Classification of railway fastener system:
1. Wooden sleeper fasteners
The connecting part on the sleeper track used to connect the rail and the sleeper. According to the relationship between the connecting rail, the backing plate and the wooden sleeper, it is divided into: deciliter type and hybrid type.
The split fastener is to separate the bolts or spikes that fix the rail and the iron backing plate. Generally, the iron backing plate is fixed on the sleepers with road spikes. The iron backing plate has a rail-bearing groove. The bolts that fix the rail are installed on the iron backing plate, and then the rail is fixed with elastic strips or gussets.
The railway fastener manufacturer tells you that the hybrid fastener is composed of iron pads and road studs. Use spikes (square) to directly connect the rails to the iron pads and sleepers. The buckle pressure is small, in order to prevent the rail from creeping longitudinally, more anti-climbing equipment is required.
2. Concrete sleeper fasteners
The railway fastener manufacturer tells you the connecting parts on the concrete sleeper track used to connect the rail and the concrete sleeper. Due to the characteristics of large weight and high rigidity, concrete sleepers have higher requirements on the performance of fasteners, and have stricter requirements on the fastener pressure, elasticity, and adjustability. Concrete sleeper fasteners can be divided into three types according to their structure: elastic fasteners, gusset type fasteners, and shrapnel type fasteners (see concrete sleeper fasteners); according to the elasticity of the fasteners themselves, they can be divided into rigid fasteners and elastic fasteners ; According to whether the concrete sleeper has a shoulder or not, it is divided into two types: with shoulder fastener and without shoulder fastener. China's concrete sleeper fasteners mainly used two types: gusset type and shrapnel type in the initial stage. Due to the low strength of the arched shrapnel, it is easy to cause residual deformation or even breakage, so it is no longer used on Chinese railways. However, the gusset type fasteners use the gusset plate as the clasp, which has insufficient elasticity and low buckling pressure, and is easy to loosen during use. The railway fastener manufacturer tells you that the elastic strip fasteners use elastic strips as the fastening parts. They use the bending deformation and torsional deformation of the material, and there is no weakening of the section. pieces. The main type of fastener currently used is the type I spring clip. With the development of heavy-duty high-speed railways, type II and type III clips have been successfully developed in recent years. Among them, type III fasteners are bolt-free and shoulder-free fasteners.
3. Buckle type fasteners
The railway fastener manufacturer tells you that the gusset type fastener is composed of a gusset plate, a threaded spike, a spring washer, an iron seat and a buffer pad. The threaded spike is anchored in the reserved holes of the concrete sleeper platform with cement mortar, and then used The bolts fasten the pinch plate.