Railway fastener is a part used to connect rails and sleepers (or other types of under-rail foundations) on the track, also known as intermediate connecting parts. Its function is to fix the rail on the sleeper, maintain the gauge and prevent the rail from moving vertically and horizontally relative to the sleeper. The railway fastener system is divided into: shrapnel fastener system, gusset fastener system, elastic strip fastener system, and spike fastener system.
According to the requirements of rail transit, the new railway fastener should have the following characteristics:
1. Have sufficient strength and durability
Rail transit has a long operating time, high traffic density, and poor maintenance conditions. Railway equipment requires rail fasteners to have sufficient strength and durability to ensure driving safety.
2. Has a certain gauge and level adjustment performance
Rail transit mostly adopts a monolithic track bed structure, the radius of the line curve is small, and the rails of railway equipment are worn. This requires that the railway fastener should have a certain gauge and level adjustment performance, so as to solve the overrun of the gauge and the level of the rail caused by the abrasion of the curved rail, the uneven settlement of the structure and the construction error.
3. Have good insulation properties
Rail transit generally uses running rails as return rails, which requires fasteners to have good insulation properties to prevent current from leaking through the fasteners and cause electrical corrosion of structural steel bars and municipal pipelines.
4. Have good damping elasticity
Urban rail transit such as subways runs through residential areas and requires high environmental protection requirements for vibration and noise reduction. Railway fasteners must have good vibration reduction performance, attenuate track vibration, and reduce noise transmission.
5. There is a certain general interchangeability
The structure of railway fastener should be simple, with few parts, with certain universal interchangeability, low cost, convenient construction and maintenance.